martes, 29 de noviembre de 2016


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martes, 22 de noviembre de 2016



Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in (FROM WWW.COMMET.EDU)

We use at to designate specific times.
#The train is due at 12:15 p.m.

We use on to designate days and dates. # 
      My brother is coming on Monday. #We're having a party on the Fourth of July.

We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year. # 

She likes to jog in the morning. #It's too cold in winter to run outside. # 
He started the job in 1971. #He's going to quit in August.

Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in

We use at for specific addresses.
#Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.

We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.
#Her house is on Boretz Road.

And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).
#She lives in Durham. #Durham is in Windham County. #Windham County is in Connecticut.

Prepositions of Location: in, at, and on and No Preposition

(the) bed*
the bedroom
the car
(the) class*
the library*
the library*
the office
the bed*
the ceiling
the floor
the horse
the plane
the train
* You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations.

Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition

We use to in order to express movement toward a place.
#They were driving to work together. #She's going to the dentist's office this morning.

Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you. # 

We're moving toward the light. #This is a big step towards the project's completion.

With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, we use no preposition. # 
Grandma went upstairs #Grandpa went home. #They both went outside.

Prepositions of Time: for and since

We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years). #He held his breath for seven minutes. #She's lived there for seven years. #The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.

We use since with a specific date or time.
#He's worked here since 1970. #She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

Prepositions with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.

Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. (In fact, in other languages, such as German, they would have become one word.) This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs.


approval of
awareness of
belief in
concern for
confusion about
desire for
fondness for
grasp of
hatred of
hope for
interest in
love of
need for
participation in
reason for
respect for
success in
understanding of


afraid of
angry at
aware of
capable of
careless about
familiar with
fond of
happy about
interested in
jealous of
made of
married to
proud of
similar to
sorry for
sure of
tired of
worried about


apologize for
ask about
ask for
belong to
bring up
care for
find out
give up
grow up
look for
look forward to
look up
make up
pay for
prepare for
study for
talk about
think about
trust in
work for
worry about

A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle.

Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions

  • agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle
  • argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition
  • compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities)
  • correspond to a thing, with a person
  • differ from an unlike thing, with a person
  • live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people

jueves, 17 de noviembre de 2016



Past Simple Tense (I did)

We use this tense in English to talk about events or situations that are finished. Normally we use a time reference.
For example:
"Last year I went to Spain."
"In 1997, he changed his job."
"She called an hour ago."
We also use the Past Simple tense in English to talk about long-lasting events or situations in the past.
"When I was a child, I lived in the countryside."
To talk about repeated activites in the past, we also use the Past Simple.
"I often went to the beach as a child."

Past Continuous Tense ("I was doing")

There are three main uses of this tense:
1. To talk about what was happening at a particular time in the past and to give descriptions and background information.
2. To talk about temporary situations in the past.
3. To make polite requests.
1. Talking about what was happening at a particular time in the past.
"This time yesterday, I was reading a book."
We often use the Past Continuous tense with the Past Simple tense. The Past Continuous gives the background to an event in the Past Simple:
"When he got home, the children were playing in the garden." (The children started playing in the garden before he got home.)
"I was eating dinner when there was a knock on the door." (The knock on the door came in the middle of my meal.)
We can use the Past Continuous to give descriptions.
"The girl was wearing a yellow dress. She was eating ice-cream and was watching television."
2. Talking about temporary situations in the past.
"When I was living in London, I often went to the theatre." (Living in London was temporary – perhaps I only lived there for a short while.)
Compare with: "When I was a child I lived in the countryside." Living in the countryside was a longer event – I was a child for more than a couple of years. For more permanent situations, we use the Past Simple tense.
3. Making polite requests.
If we want to make polite requests, we can use the Past Continuous tense. This is because we put a distance between ourselves and the person we are asking.
"I was wondering if you had time to see me."
"I was hoping we could discuss a pay raise."

Present Perfect


[has/have + past participle]
  • You have seen that movie many times.
  • Have you seen that movie many times?
  • You have not seen that movie many times.

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
  • I have seen that movie twenty times.
  • I think I have met him once before.
  • There have been many earthquakes in California.
  • People have traveled to the Moon.
  • People have not traveled to Mars.
  • Have you read the book yet?
  • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
  • A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
    B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?

The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 Experience

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
  • I have been to France.
    This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
  • I have been to France three times.
    You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
  • I have never been to France.
    This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
  • I think I have seen that movie before.
  • He has never traveled by train.
  • Joan has studied two foreign languages.
  • A: Have you ever met him?
    B: No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
  • You have grown since the last time I saw you.
  • The government has become more interested in arts education.
  • Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
  • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
  • Man has walked on the Moon.
  • Our son has learned how to read.
  • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
  • Scientists have split the atom.

TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting

We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
  • James has not finished his homework yet.
  • Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
  • Bill has still not arrived.
  • The rain hasn't stopped.

Past Perfect


[had + past participle]
  • You had studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
  • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

  • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
  • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
  • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
  • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
  • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
  • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
  • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.


lunes, 14 de noviembre de 2016



a. READ the title of the essay carefully and make sure that you understand it. If necessary, underline key words in the title. REMEMBER: if your essay does not cover the topic(s) proposed in the title, your mark will be very low.
b. WRITE AN ESSAY PLAN. You can do this in English or in your mother tongue – but remember that you must be sure that you can express your ideas easily in English. In your essay plan you should note down specific vocabulary related to the topic. You should also write down any appropriate CONNECTORS (linkers). At first, you will find writing an essay plan difficult and time-consuming, but with practice it will save you time in the end and will also help you to organise your ideas in coherent paragraphs.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones?
 Now everybody has a mobile.
 What happened in the past?
 There are pros and cons.

2. PARAGRAPH 1: Advantages
 Immediate contact with family and friends.
 Good in emergencies.
 Many news uses – technology is developing.

3. PARAGRAPH 2: Disadvantages
 Bad for our health; addictive.
 Not sociable?
 What happens in schools?

 Good and bad aspects.
 My opinion.


KEY WORDS: technology, technological, developments, to keep in touch with someone, text messages, (on) the Internet, health, healthy, unhealthy, good//bad manners, to be banned.
POSSIBLE LINKERS: Contrast – however, nevertheless, on the one hand………..on the other hand, although, despite//Adding Information – also, in addition, moreover, furthermore//Giving your opinion – as far as I am concerned, in my view, etc.

c. PRESENTATION. Your essay should be presented neatly and should be easy to read. It is always a good idea to write an initial draft and then a clean version. 

The following instructions are important:
 Use blank A-4 paper. DO NOT use lined paper.
 Write your full NAME at the top right-hand corner of the page.
 Write the TITLE of the composition (exactly as it is written in the exam).
 Leave a wide MARGIN on the left.
 Leave SPACE between each line.
 Clearly indicate the beginning of each paragraph by INDENTING the first line (DO NOT use lines or dots).
 If you make a mistake, cross it out neatly with one line: mistake.

d. REVISE your text when you have finished your first draft. This is extremely important as you will always find common mistakes and words or expressions that you are unsure of.

COMMON MISTAKES. You should make sure you are familiar with the following points of grammar and check you have used them correctly in your essays:
 Adjectives - position/number
 Gerunds and infinitives
 Much/many/a lot of
 Word order
 Another/other/others
 Prepositions
 Use of the definite article
 Agreement of subject and verb
 Correct use of verb tenses
 Punctuation
 Spelling
 False friends

e. FINALLY, remember these GENERAL RULES:

 Avoid very long, complicated sentences (with these, it is easier to make mistakes), or sentences which are too short.
 DO NOT TRANSLATE from Spanish into English. If you do this, you will inevitably make mistakes. It is better to think how you can express your ideas in a clear, simple way in English, using vocabulary and grammatical forms that you are sure of.
 Try and incorporate grammar which you have studied in Bachillerato into your essays, for example, the passive voice, relative pronouns, indirect speech, etc.
 Make sure that you use appropriate connectors so that your text appears to be more coherent.
 The best way to write well in English is to have read a wide variety of texts in English, which will both improve your level of comprehension and help you to form opinions and have ideas about which you can write. There are many websites to help improve your reading comprehension, for example: