domingo, 6 de diciembre de 2015


NIVEL INTERMEDIO DE INGLÉS (1 Y 2) Contenidos temáticos:

· Identificación personal
· Vivienda, hogar, ciudad y entorno
· Actividades de la vida diaria
· Tiempo libre y ocio
· Viajes
· Relaciones humanas y sociales
· Salud y cuidados físicos
· Educación
· Compras y actividades comerciales
· Alimentación
· Bienes y servicios.
· Lengua y comunicación.
· Clima, condiciones atmosféricas y medio ambiente
· Ciencia y tecnología


Second conditional

The Second Conditional is used to talk about 'impossible' situations.
  • If we were in London today, we would be able to go to the concert in Hyde Park.
  • If I had millions dollars, I'd give a lot to charity.
  • If there were no hungry people in this world, it would be a much better place.
  • If everyone had clean water to drink, there would be a lot less disease.
Note that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'. (Some people think that 'were' is the only 'correct' form but other people think 'was' is equally 'correct' .)
  • If she were happy in her job, she wouldn't be looking for another one.
  • If I lived in Japan, I'd have sushi every day.
  • If they were to enter our market, we'd have big problems.
Note the form 'If I were you' which is often used to give advice.
  • If I were you, I'd look for a new place to live.
  • If I were you, I'd go back to school and get more qualifications.
The Second Conditional is also used to talk about 'unlikely' situations.
  • If I went to China, I'd visit the Great Wall.
  • If I was the President, I'd reduce taxes.
  • If you were in my position, you'd understand.
Note that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker's attitude rather than of facts. Compare these examples. Otto thinks these things are possible, Peter doesn't.
  • Otto – If I win the lottery, I'll buy a big house.
  • Peter – If I won the lottery, I'd buy a big house.
  • Otto – If I get promoted, I'll throw a big party.
  • Peter – If I got promoted, I'd throw a big party.
  • Otto – If my team win the Cup, I'll buy champagne for everybody.
  • Peter – If my team won the Cup, I'd buy champagne for everybody.
Note that the 'If clause' can contain the past simple or the past continuous.
  • If I was still working in Brighton, I would commute by train.
  • If she were coming, she would be here by now.
  • If they were thinking of selling, I would want to buy.
Note that the main clause can contain 'would' 'could' or 'might.
  • If I had the chance to do it again, I would do it differently.
  • If we met up for lunch, we could go to that new restaurant.
  • If I spoke to him directly, I might be able to persuade him.
Also note that sometimes the 'if clause' is implied rather than spoken.
  • What would I do without you? ("if you weren't here")
  • Where would I get one at this time of night? ("if I wanted one")
  • He wouldn't agree. ("if I asked him")


miércoles, 2 de diciembre de 2015





jueves, 26 de noviembre de 2015


Future tenses

There are several different ways in English that you can talk about the future. This page is an introduction to the most important ones:

Predictions/statements of fact

The auxiliary verb will is used in making predictions or simple statements of fact about the future.
  • The sun will rise at 6.30 tomorrow.
  • Lunch break today will be 10 minutes longer than usual.
  • In the year 2050 all students will have their own computers in school.
  • If you help me, I will help you.
  • Do you think she will come soon?
  • You won't pass your exams if you don't start working harder.
  • I know my parents won't let me go to the party.
  • Will it snow for Christmas?
  • I know she's sick, but will she be back in school tomorrow?


The auxiliary verb going to is used in talking about intentions. (An intention is a plan for the future that you have already thought about.)
  • We're going to buy a new car next month.
  • I'm going to work in a bank when I leave school.
  • In the new year I'm going to stop eating so much junk.
  • He's not going to go to the dance. He's got too much work.
  • I'm not going to watch TV until my science project is finished.
  • Are you going to play basketball after school?
  • What are you going to have for lunch today?
Note: going to is often used in the past tense to talk about an unfulfilled intention. Examples: I was going to study for my grammar test, but I had no time. / He was going to call you, but he couldn't find his mobile phone. / My grandmother was going to visit us, but she fell and broke her arm.


The present continuous tense is used in talking about arrangements. (An arrangement is is a plan for the future that you have already thought about and discussed with someone else.)
  • I'm meeting my mother at the airport tomorrow.
  • Our grandparents are visiting us this Christmas.
  • Sorry, I can't stay after school today; I'm playing tennis with Jun-Sik.
  • My sister's going to the dentist tomorrow.
  • I'm not returning home for the holidays, so I can come to your party after all!
  • Are you doing anything on Sunday morning?
  • Do you know if he is going to the dance with Maiko next week?
 "Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions, such as "Shall we go?" "Shall" is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. "Shall" is much more commonly heard in British English than in American English; Americans prefer to use other forms, although they do sometimes use "shall" in suggestions or formalized language.
  • Shall I help you? suggestion
  • I shall never forget where I came from. promise
  • He shall become our next king. predestination
  • I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. inevitability

Scheduled events

The present simple tense is usually used to refer to future events that are scheduled (and outside of our control).
  • Hurry up! The train departs in 10 minutes.
  • I leave Frankfurt at 5 o'clock in the morning and arrive in New York
  • at midnight the next day.
  • She has an appointment with the headmaster after school today.
  • There's no need to hurry. The train doesn't leave for another 30 minutes.
  • When does the meeting begin?

lunes, 16 de noviembre de 2015



Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs).
Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult, as a 1:1 translation is usually not possible. One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation.
There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips).
The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English:

Prepositions – Time

English Usage Example
  • on
  • days of the week
  • on Monday
  • in
  • months / seasons
  • time of day
  • year
  • after a certain period of time (when?)
  • in August / in winter
  • in the morning
  • in 2006
  • in an hour
  • at
  • for night
  • for weekend
  • a certain point of time (when?)
  • at night
  • at the weekend
  • at half past nine
  • since
  • from a certain point of time (past till now)
  • since 1980
  • for
  • over a certain period of time (past till now)
  • for 2 years
  • ago
  • a certain time in the past
  • 2 years ago
  • before
  • earlier than a certain point of time
  • before 2004
  • to
  • telling the time
  • ten to six (5:50)
  • past
  • telling the time
  • ten past six (6:10)
  • to / till / until
  • marking the beginning and end of a period of time
  • from Monday to/till Friday
  • till / until
  • in the sense of how long something is going to last
  • He is on holiday until Friday.
  • by
  • in the sense of at the latest
  • up to a certain time
  • I will be back by 6 o’clock.
  • By 11 o'clock, I had read five pages.

Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction)

English Usage Example
  • in
  • room, building, street, town, country
  • book, paper etc.
  • car, taxi
  • picture, world
  • in the kitchen, in London
  • in the book
  • in the car, in a taxi
  • in the picture, in the world
  • at
  • meaning next to, by an object
  • for table
  • for events
  • place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)
  • at the door, at the station
  • at the table
  • at a concert, at the party
  • at the cinema, at school, at work
  • on
  • attached
  • for a place with a river
  • being on a surface
  • for a certain side (left, right)
  • for a floor in a house
  • for public transport
  • for television, radio
  • the picture on the wall
  • London lies on the Thames.
  • on the table
  • on the left
  • on the first floor
  • on the bus, on a plane
  • on TV, on the radio
  • by, next to, beside
  • left or right of somebody or something
  • Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.
  • under
  • on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else
  • the bag is under the table
  • below
  • lower than something else but above ground
  • the fish are below the surface
  • over
  • covered by something else
  • meaning more than
  • getting to the other side (also across)
  • overcoming an obstacle
  • put a jacket over your shirt
  • over 16 years of age
  • walk over the bridge
  • climb over the wall
  • above
  • higher than something else, but not directly over it
  • a path above the lake
  • across
  • getting to the other side (also over)
  • getting to the other side
  • walk across the bridge
  • swim across the lake
  • through
  • something with limits on top, bottom and the sides
  • drive through the tunnel
  • to
  • movement to person or building
  • movement to a place or country
  • for bed
  • go to the cinema
  • go to London / Ireland
  • go to bed
  • into
  • enter a room / a building
  • go into the kitchen / the house
  • towards
  • movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)
  • go 5 steps towards the house
  • onto
  • movement to the top of something
  • jump onto the table
  • from
  • in the sense of where from
  • a flower from the garden

Other important Prepositions

English Usage Example
  • from
  • who gave it
  • a present from Jane
  • of
  • who/what does it belong to
  • what does it show
  • a page of the book
  • the picture of a palace
  • by
  • who made it
  • a book by Mark Twain
  • on
  • walking or riding on horseback
  • entering a public transport vehicle
  • on foot, on horseback
  • get on the bus
  • in
  • entering a car  / Taxi
  • get in the car
  • off
  • leaving a public transport vehicle
  • get off the train
  • out of
  • leaving a car  / Taxi
  • get out of the taxi
  • by
  • rise or fall of something
  • travelling (other than walking or horseriding)
  • prices have risen by 10 percent
  • by car, by bus
  • at
  • for age
  • she learned Russian at 45
  • about
  • for topics, meaning what about
  • we were talking about you

Exercises on Prepositions

miércoles, 4 de noviembre de 2015


USED TO.from


[used to + VERB]
  • I used to go to the beach every day.
It is better not to use "used to" in questions or negative forms; however, this is sometimes done in informal spoken English. It is better to ask questions and create negative sentences using Simple Past.

USE 1 Habit in the Past

"Used to" expresses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the past. It indicates that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now.
  • Jerry used to study English.
  • Sam and Mary used to go to Mexico in the summer.
  • I used to start work at 9 o'clock.
  • Christine used to eat meat, but now she is a vegetarian.

USE 2 Past Facts and Generalizations

"Used to" can also be used to talk about past facts or generalizations which are no longer true.
  • I used to live in Paris.
  • Sarah used to be fat, but now she is thin.
  • George used to be the best student in class, but now Lena is the best.
  • Oranges used to cost very little in Florida, but now they are quite expensive.

"Used to" vs. Simple Past

Both Simple Past and "Used to" can be used to describe past habits, past facts and past generalizations; however, "used to" is preferred when emphasizing these forms of past repetition in positive sentences. On the other hand, when asking questions or making negative sentences, Simple Past is preferred.
  • You used to play the piano.
  • Did you play the piano when you were young?
  • You did not play the piano when you were young.

martes, 27 de octubre de 2015


Ancient Origins of Halloween

Halloween's origins date back to the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain (pronounced sow-in).
The Celts, who lived 2,000 years ago in the area that is now Ireland, the United Kingdom, and northern France, celebrated their new year on November 1. This day marked the end of summer and the harvest and the beginning of the dark, cold winter, a time of year that was often associated with human death. Celts believed that on the night before the new year, the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead became blurred. On the night of October 31, they celebrated Samhain, when it was believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to earth. In addition to causing trouble and damaging crops, Celts thought that the presence of the otherworldly spirits made it easier for the Druids, or Celtic priests, to make predictions about the future. For a people entirely dependent on the volatile natural world, these prophecies were an important source of comfort and direction during the long, dark winter.
To commemorate the event, Druids built huge sacred bonfires, where the people gathered to burn crops and animals as sacrifices to the Celtic deities.
During the celebration, the Celts wore costumes, typically consisting of animal heads and skins, and attempted to tell each other's fortunes. When the celebration was over, they re-lit their hearth fires, which they had extinguished earlier that evening, from the sacred bonfire to help protect them during the coming winter.
By A.D. 43, Romans had conquered the majority of Celtic territory. In the course of the four hundred years that they ruled the Celtic lands, two festivals of Roman origin were combined with the traditional Celtic celebration of Samhain.
The first was Feralia, a day in late October when the Romans traditionally commemorated the passing of the dead. The second was a day to honor Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruit and trees. The symbol of Pomona is the apple and the incorporation of this celebration into Samhain probably explains the tradition of "bobbing" for apples that is practiced today on Halloween.
By the 800s, the influence of Christianity had spread into Celtic lands. In the seventh century, Pope Boniface IV designated November 1 All Saints' Day, a time to honor saints and martyrs. It is widely believed today that the pope was attempting to replace the Celtic festival of the dead with a related, but church-sanctioned holiday. The celebration was also called All-hallows or All-hallowmas (from Middle English Alholowmesse meaning All Saints' Day) and the night before it, the night of Samhain, began to be called All-hallows Eve and, eventually, Halloween. Even later, in A.D. 1000, the church would make November 2 All Souls' Day, a day to honor the dead. It was celebrated similarly to Samhain, with big bonfires, parades, and dressing up in costumes as saints, angels, and devils. Together, the three celebrations, the eve of All Saints', All Saints', and All Souls', were called Hallowmas.


miércoles, 21 de octubre de 2015





Possessive ’s. From

We use apostrophe s (’s), also called possessive ’s, as a determiner to show that something belongs to someone or something:
Is that Olivia’s bag?
Britain’s coastline is very beautiful.
We can also use it in complex noun phrases (underlined):
Greg is her youngest daughter’s husband.
We can use two possessive ’s constructions in the same noun phrase:
We went to Jake’s father’s funeral.
We also use possessive ’s to talk about time and duration:
Is that yesterday’s paper?
I’ve only had one week’s holiday so far this year.

Rules for using possessive ’s

We use ’s after a singular noun and after a plural noun.
singular noun + ’s
plural noun + ’
The girl’s bedroom
(The bedroom belongs to one girl.)
The girls’ bedroom.
(The bedroom belongs to more than one girl.)
We use ’s with irregular plural nouns (e.g. children, men, people, women):
The children’s parents decided which university they would go to.
They have no respect for other people’s property.
The rules for the pronunciation of a noun with ’s are the same as the rules for pronunciation of plural forms of nouns.
noun + ’s or
plural noun
The cat’s dinner is in the fridge.
The cats were running around the garden.
The kids’ uncle gave them all some money.
The kids are getting impatient.
George’s brother was there.
There are three Georges in my family.
When a first or second name ends in -s, we can either add or ’s. It is more common to use than ’s. When we speak, we usually pronounce the final part of the word as /zɪz/ or /sɪz/:
Is that James car? (or Is that James’s car?) (both usually pronounced /ˈdʒeɪmzɪz/)
I love Keats’ poetry. (or I love Keats’s poetry.) (both usually pronounced /ˈki:tsɪz/)
With compound nouns, we add ’s to the final noun:
My sister-in-law’s friend came with us.
Not: My sister’s-in-law friend
We don’t usually use the possessive ’s with things:
the door handle
Not: the door’s handle
the shop window
Not: the shop’s window
the kitchen table
Not: the kitchen’s table
Spoken English:
When we talk about places which are familiar to the speaker and the listener, we sometimes don’t use the noun after possessive ’s:
the hairdresser’s salon – the hairdresser’s
the doctor’s surgery – the doctor’s
We had to take our cat to the vet’s twice last month. (the same as: We had to take our cat to the vet’s clinic twice last month.)
Do you shop in Marks and Spencer’s?
We decided to go to John’s after the cinema. (the same as: We decided to go to John’s house after the cinema.)
In short answers, we can omit the noun if it is not necessary to repeat it:
Is that your coat?
No, it’s Sandra’s.
We use possessive ’s with words such as one, anyone, someone, anybody, somebody:
It’s important to know one’s rights as a tenant.
Is this someone’s coat here?
When we use else with these words, the ’s is added to else:
Why didn’t you come? Everyone else’s husband was there.
The pronoun other has the same forms as nouns. We add ’s to the singular form, and we add an apostrophe after the plural -s ending in the plural form:
They took each other’s hand and started walking.
All of our luggage arrived but the others’ cases didn’t. The airline promise they will be here this evening.
We don’t use ’s with possessive pronouns:
Is that dog yours?
Not: Is that dog your’s?
I think that car is theirs.
Not: I think that car is theirs’
We don’t use ’s with the possessive determiner its. It’s means ‘it is’:
The city is proud of its parks.
Not: The city is proud of it’s parks.

Possessives with of

Noun phrase + of + possessive pronoun

We can talk about possession using the pattern: noun phrase + of + possessive pronoun:
A friend of mine told me that all of the tickets have already sold out.
Where’s Martin?
He’s gone to pick up a cousin of his at the station.
Is Linda McGrath a close friend of yours?
We use a possessive pronoun, not the object form of the pronoun:
A neighbour of mine called late last night.
Not: A neighbour of me

Noun phrase + of + possessive ’s noun phrase

We can also use the noun phrase + of pattern before a noun phrase with possessive ’s:
He’s a brother of Maria’s.
A friend of my sister’s has opened a café on Dawson Street.
She was a daughter of the President’s.

’s or of or either?

There are some general rules about when to use ’s and when to use of but there are many cases where both are possible:
The film’s hero or The hero of the film
The car’s safety record or The safety record of the car
The report’s conclusion or The conclusion of the report
Sometimes when we first mention a noun, we use of, and later when we refer to it again, we use ’s:
The mountains of Pakistan are mostly in the north. At least one hundred of them are above 7,000 metres … Most of Pakistan’s mountains are in the spectacular Karakoram range.

When we don’t use ’s

We don’t use ’s when the noun is not a person, animal, country, organisation, etc., or when the noun phrase is very long:
The name of the ship was ‘Wonder Queen’. (preferred to The ship’s name was ‘Wonder Queen’.)
The house of the oldest woman in the village. (preferred to The oldest woman in the village’s house.)

When we don’t use of

When we are talking about things that belong to us, relationships and characteristics of people, animals, countries, categories, groups or organisations made up of people, we usually use ’s:
The men’s dressing room is on the left at the end of the corridor.
Not: The dressing room of the men
The cat’s paw was badly cut.
Not: The paw of the cat

Possession: typical errors

  • We don’t use ’s with plural nouns:
It’s my responsibility to deal with customers’ complaints.
Not: … to deal with customer’s complaints.
  • The possessive determiner its has no apostrophe:
We bought this car because we liked its colour.
Not: … because we liked it’s colour.
  • We don’t use ’s to make nouns plural. When we want to show that something is plural, we add -s without an apostrophe:
They had to rebuild the roads after the earthquake.
Not: They had to rebuild the road’s

martes, 13 de octubre de 2015




The simple present tense is often confused with the present continuous tense. This page will explain when to use each one.

1. The simple present tense

The simple present tense is used for two main types of action:
Habits Actions which happen regularly (for example, every day or every week)
States Things which do not often change (for example, opinions and conditions)
Some examples will help to make this clearer:
Type of action Examples Explanations
Habit Young-Mi goes to class every day. “Every day” is a habit.
It rains a lot in Vancouver. This means that it rains often.
Santos always talks about his family. “Always” means this is a habit.
Jerry spends Christmas with his parents. This implies that he spends Christmas with his parents every year.
State Bianca lives in Florida. This is a state, because it doesn't change.
Jean-Paul has red hair. Someone's hair colour doesn't usually change.
Martin likes chocolate. When we like something, usually we will always like it.
Anna believes in God. Beliefs and opinions are states. They don't often change.

2. The present continuous tense

The present continuous tense is used for two main types of action:
A temporary action happening now Something which is going on right now (but it will stop in the future)
A definite plan for the future Something we intend to do, usually in the near future
Here are some examples:
Type of action Examples Explanations
Temporary action happening right now John is winning the game. Right now, John is winning, but the game isn't finished yet.
It's raining outside. It's raining right now (but it may stop soon).
Soraya's working in the library. She's working there right now.
Sihol is spending Christmas with his family. He's spending Christmas with his family right now, this year. (Maybe next year he won't.)
Definite plan for the future I'm playing soccer tomorrow. This plan is already arranged and definite.
Sarah's leaving for San Francisco on Friday. She has probably already bought her ticket.
The Olympics are taking place here next year. This is already certain.
I'm having a party next week. All the plans have been made.  

jueves, 8 de octubre de 2015


Types of Papers: Narrative/Descriptive (FROM ROANE STATE EDU)

To write a narrative essay, you’ll need to tell a story (usually about something that happened to you) in such a way that he audience learns a lesson or gains insight.
To write a descriptive essay, you’ll need to describe a person, object, or event so vividly that the reader feels like he/she could reach out and touch it.
Tips for writing effective narrative and descriptive essays:
  • Tell a story about a moment or event that means a lot to you--it will make it easier for you to tell the story in an interesting way!
  • Get right to the action!  Avoid long introductions and lengthy descriptions--especially at the beginning of your narrative.
  • Make sure your story has a point! Describe what you learned from this experience.
  • Use all five of your senses to describe the setting, characters, and the plot of your story. Don't be afraid to tell the story in your own voice.  Nobody wants to read a story that sounds like a textbook!

How to Write Vivid Descriptions

Having trouble describing a person, object, or event for your narrative or descriptive essay?  Try filling out this chart:
What do you smell? What do you taste? What do you see? What do you hear? What might you touch or feel?
Remember:  Avoid simply telling us what something looks like--tell us how it tastes, smells, sounds, or feels!
Consider this…
  • Virginia rain smells different from a California drizzle.
  • A mountain breeze feels different from a sea breeze.
  • We hear different things in one spot, depending on the time of day.
  • You can “taste” things you’ve never eaten: how would sunscreen taste?

Using Concrete Details for Narratives

Effective narrative essays allow readers to visualize everything that's happening, in their minds.  One way to make sure that this occurs is to use concrete, rather than abstract, details. 
Concrete Language Abstract Language
…makes the story or image seem clearer and more real to us. ...makes the story or image difficult to visualize.
…gives us information that we can easily grasp and perhaps empathize with. …leaves your reader feeling empty, disconnected, and possibly confused.
The word “abstract” might remind you of modern art.  An abstract painting, for example, does not normally contain recognizable objects.  In other words, we can't look at the painting and immediately say "that's a house" or "that's a bowl of fruit."  To the untrained eye, abstract art looks a bit like a child's finger-painting--just brightly colored splotches on a canvas. Avoid abstract language—it won’t help the reader understand what you're trying to say!
Abstract:  It was a nice day.  Concrete:  The sun was shining and a slight breeze blew across my face. 
Abstract:  I liked writing poems, not essays.  Concrete:  I liked writing short, rhythmic poems and hated rambling on about my thoughts in those four-page essays. 
Abstract:  Mr. Smith was a great teacher. Concrete:  Mr. Smith really knew how to help us turn our thoughts into good stories and essays.

Sample Papers - Narration

Sample Papers - Descriptive