martes, 28 de abril de 2015


Articles in English are very important, as we use them all the time. The three articles in English are aan, and the. Here are some basic rules for understanding how to use these articles:

The is the definite article. It is used before singular or plural nouns that are specificor particular. Here are some examples:

"The girl who lives next door to me is really cute." This refers to a particular girl: the girl who lives next door.
"The president is a busy man." There is only one president, so we are referring to aspecific noun here.
"I love the books you gave me." Again, we're talking about particular books, the ones you gave me.

A/an are the indefinite articles. We use a/an before general, non-specific nouns or to indicate membership in a group. A/an can only be used with countablesingular nouns. Here are some examples of how to use a/an:

"Let's go see a movie tonight." Here we aren't talking about a specific movie, as we haven't said which movie we want to see.
"Cassie is an interpreter." Here, Cassie belongs to a group: interpreters. We use "an" instead of "a" because "interpreter" begins with a vowell.
"I hope I get a car for my birthday." This refers to any car. We don't know which car yet because we haven't gotten the car.

Finally, all articles in English are invariable, meaning that they do not change if the noun is singular or plural, male or female. There are no other forms of the, an, or a. 



Have something done  
If you 'have something done', you get somebody else to do something for you.
  • I'm going to have my hair cut.
  • She's having her house redecorated.
  • I'm having a copy of the report sent to you
In informal English, we can replace 'have' by 'get'.
  • We're getting a new telephone system installed.
  • They will be getting the system repaired as quickly as they can.
  • I got the bill sent direct to the company.
We can also use 'have/got something done' in situations where something bad has happened to people or their possessions. This is not something they wanted to happen.
  • John had all his money stolen from his hotel bedroom.
  • We had our car damaged by a falling tree.
  • I got my nose broken playing rugby.

jueves, 9 de abril de 2015


Here is a brief review of the differences between gerunds and infinitives. 
Gerunds are formed with ING:walking, talking, thinking, listening
Infinitives are formed with TO:to walk, to talk, to think, to listen

Gerunds and infinitives can do several jobs: 
Both gerunds and infinitives can be the subject of a sentence::

Writing in English is difficult.
To write in English is difficult.

Both gerunds and infinitives can be the object of a verb::

I like writing in English.
I like to write in English.


Only gerunds can be the object of a preposition::

We are talking about writing in English.

It is often difficult to know when to use a gerund and when to use an infinitive. These guidelines may help you:
Gerunds are often used when actions are real, concrete or completed::

I stopped smoking.
(The smoking was real and happened until I stopped.)

Infinitives are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future::

I stopped to smoke.
(I was doing something else, and I stopped; the smoking had not happened yet.)


martes, 7 de abril de 2015


‘used to + infinitive’ and ‘be/get used to’

People often get confused about the use of used to + infinitive and be/get used to + ‘ing’ form because they look similar. They are, however, completely different.

‘used to + infinitive’

We use ‘
 used to’ to talk about things that happened in the past – actions or states – that no longer happen now.
  • She used to be a long distance runner when she was younger.
  • I used to eat meat but I became a vegetarian 5 years ago.
The negative is ‘didn’t use to’ and questions are formed with ‘Did you use to …?’
There is no present tense equivalent of ‘used to’. To talk about present habits we use the present simple and an adverb of frequency (usually, always, often, never, etc.)
e.g. I often eat at the Japanese restaurant in the city centre.

‘be/get used to’

If you 
are used to something, you are accustomed to it – you don’t find it unusual. If youget used to something or you are getting used to something you are becoming accustomed to it – it was strange, now it’s not so strange.
  • I found Slovak food very strange at first but I’m used to it now.
  • I’m getting used to driving on the right.
Both ‘be used to’ and ‘get used to’ are followed by a noun (or pronoun) or the gerund – the ‘ing’ form of a verb.
  • I can’t get used to getting up so early. I’m tired all the time.
  • He’s not used to the weather here yet. He’s finding it very cold.

Difference Between 'Used to' and 'Would' 

'Used to' can refer to permanent situations as well as habitual actions. 

I used to be able to get up at nine o'clock every morning. = It was possible for me to do this in my past situation.

'Would' only refers to actions, but not situations. 

He'd get up early every morning. 
He'd be able to get a good job in New York. 

Be/get used to’ can be used with past, present and future tenses.