jueves, 30 de octubre de 2014

ADJECTIVES ORDER






Copyright British Council

Sometimes we use more than one adjective in front of a noun:

He was a nice intelligent young man.
She had a small round black wooden box.

Opinion adjectives:

Some adjectives give a general opinion. We can use these adjectives to describe almost any noun:
good bad lovely  strange
beautiful nice brilliant excellent
awful important wonderful nasty

Some adjectives give a specific opinion. We only use these adjectives to describe particular kinds of noun:
Food: tasty; delicious
Furniture, buildings: comfortable; uncomfortable
People, animals: clever; intelligent; friendly
We usually put a general opinion in front of a specific opinion:
Nice tasty soup.
A nasty uncomfortable armchair
A lovely intelligent animal
Usually we put an adjective that gives an opinion in front of an adjective that is descriptive:
a nice red dress; a silly old man; those horrible yellow curtains
We often have two adjectives in front of a noun:
a handsome young man; a big black car; that horrible big dog
Sometimes we have three adjectives, but this is unusual:
a nice handsome young man;
a big black American car;
that horrible big fierce dog
It is very unusual to have more than three adjectives.

Adjectives usually come in this order:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
General
opinion
Specific
opinion
Size  Shape Age  Colour Nationality Material

We use some adjectives only after a link verb:

afraid alive alone asleep
content glad  ill ready
sorry sure unable well
S
ome of the commonest -ed adjectives are normally used only after a link verb:
annoyed;  finished;  bored; pleased; thrilled
We say:
Our teacher was ill.
My uncle was very glad when he heard the news.
The policeman seemed to be very annoyed
but we do not say:
We had an ill teacher.
When he heard the news he was a very glad uncle
He seemed to be a very annoyed policeman
A few adjectives are used only in front of a noun:

north
south
east
west
northern
southern
eastern
western
countless
occasional
lone
eventful
indoor
outdoor
We say:
He lives in the eastern district.
There were countless problems with the new machinery.
but we do not say:
The district he lives in is eastern
The problems with the new machinery were countless.
Try these tasks to improve your adjective ordering.

EXERCISE 1
EXERCISE 2
EXERCISE 3

jueves, 9 de octubre de 2014

ECHO QUESTIONS AND QUESTION TAGS.





EXERCISE ONE
EXERCISE TWO
EXERCISE THREE


ECHO QUESTIONS

We use echo questions to show interest or surprise. For this purpose, the listener makes a short
question using the auxiliar or helping verb of the statement the speaker has just said.
EXAMPLE:
S: She is visiting relatives at this moment.
L. Is she?
S: They bought a new Television set last week.
L.    Did they?
S: I live in the centre of New York.
L. Do you?
S: Alan´s got a job as a lifeguard.
L. Has he?

QUESTION TAGS

These short questions are used to check information. We use a positive statement followed by a negative tag when we expect the answer YES.
E.g. "You are American, aren't you?"
We use a negative statement followed by a positive tag when we expect the answer NO. E.g. "They haven't arrived yet, have they?"

EXAMPLES:
I told you, didn't I?
It'll be sunny tomorrow, won't it?
He can't dive, can he?
They don't eat meat, do they?
She cooks well, doesn't she?
I am slim, aren't I?

martes, 7 de octubre de 2014

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS.







Form
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of irregular verbs
Example:
I / you / we / they have spoken
he / she / it has spoken
regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed
Example:
I / you / we / they have worked
he / she / it has worked
form of 'have' + been + verb + ing
 
Example:
I / you / we / they have been speaking
he / she / it has been speaking
Exceptions
Exceptions when adding 'ed' :
  • when the final letter is e, only add d
Example:
love - loved
  • after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled
Example:
admit - admitted
  • final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)
Example:
travel - travelled
  • after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel)
Example:
worry - worried
but: play - played
Exceptions when adding 'ing' :
  • silent e is dropped. (but: does not apply for -ee)
Example: come - coming
aber: agree - agreeing
  • after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled
Example: sit - sitting
  • after a vowel, the final consonant l is doubled in British English (but not in American English).
Example: travel - travelling
  • final ie becomes y.
Example: lie - lying
Use
Both tenses are used to express that an action began in the past and is still going on or has just finished. In many cases, both forms are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result. We use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action.
Result or duration?
Do you want to express what has happened so far or how long an action has been going on yet?
Present Perfect SimplE
Present Perfect Progressive
Result (what / how much / how often)
I have written 5 letters. / I have been to London twice.
Duration (how long)
I have been writing for an hour.
Certain verbs
The following verbs are usually only used in Present Perfect Simple (not in the progressive form).
  • state: be, have (for possession only)
Example: We have been on holiday for two weeks.
  • senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch
Example: He has touched the painting.
  • brain work: believe, know, think, understand
Example: I have known him for 3 years.
Emphasis on completion or duration?
Do you want to emphasise the completion of an action or its continuous course (how has somebody spent his time)?
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
Emphasis on completion
I have done my homework. (Meaning: My homework is completed now.)
Emphasis on duration
I have been doing my homework. (Meaning: That's how I have spent my time. It does not matter whether the homework is completed now.)
Result or side effect?
Do you want to express that a completed action led to a desired result or that the action had an unwanted side effect?
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
desired result
I have washed the car. (Result: The car is clean now.)
unwanted side effect
Why are you so wet? - I have been washing the car. (side effect: I became wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether the car is clean now.)
Time + negation: last time or beginning of an action?
In negative sentences: Do you want to express how much time has past since the last time the action took place or since the beginning of the action?
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
since the last time
I haven't played that game for years. (Meaning: It's years ago that I last played that game.)
since the beginning
I haven't been playing that game for an hour, only for 10 minutes. (Meaning: It's not even an hour ago that I started to play that game.)
Permanent or temporary?
If an action is still going on and we want to express that it is a permanent situation, we would usually use the Present Perfect Simple. For temporary situations, we would prefer the Present Perfect Progressive. This is not a rule, however, only a tendency.
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
permanent
James has lived in this town for 10 years. (Meaning: He is a permanent resident of this town.)
temporary
James has been living here for a year. (Meaning: This situation is only temporary. Maybe he is an exchange student and only here for one or two years.)
Signal words
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
  • how often
  • ... times
  • how long
  • since
  • for
Exercises on Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Progressive