jueves, 26 de noviembre de 2015

FUTURE TENSES

Future tenses

There are several different ways in English that you can talk about the future. This page is an introduction to the most important ones:

Predictions/statements of fact


The auxiliary verb will is used in making predictions or simple statements of fact about the future.
  • The sun will rise at 6.30 tomorrow.
  • Lunch break today will be 10 minutes longer than usual.
  • In the year 2050 all students will have their own computers in school.
  • If you help me, I will help you.
  • Do you think she will come soon?
  • You won't pass your exams if you don't start working harder.
  • I know my parents won't let me go to the party.
  • Will it snow for Christmas?
  • I know she's sick, but will she be back in school tomorrow?

Intentions

The auxiliary verb going to is used in talking about intentions. (An intention is a plan for the future that you have already thought about.)
  • We're going to buy a new car next month.
  • I'm going to work in a bank when I leave school.
  • In the new year I'm going to stop eating so much junk.
  • He's not going to go to the dance. He's got too much work.
  • I'm not going to watch TV until my science project is finished.
  • Are you going to play basketball after school?
  • What are you going to have for lunch today?
Note: going to is often used in the past tense to talk about an unfulfilled intention. Examples: I was going to study for my grammar test, but I had no time. / He was going to call you, but he couldn't find his mobile phone. / My grandmother was going to visit us, but she fell and broke her arm.

Arrangements

The present continuous tense is used in talking about arrangements. (An arrangement is is a plan for the future that you have already thought about and discussed with someone else.)
  • I'm meeting my mother at the airport tomorrow.
  • Our grandparents are visiting us this Christmas.
  • Sorry, I can't stay after school today; I'm playing tennis with Jun-Sik.
  • My sister's going to the dentist tomorrow.
  • I'm not returning home for the holidays, so I can come to your party after all!
  • Are you doing anything on Sunday morning?
  • Do you know if he is going to the dance with Maiko next week?
Shall
 "Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions, such as "Shall we go?" "Shall" is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. "Shall" is much more commonly heard in British English than in American English; Americans prefer to use other forms, although they do sometimes use "shall" in suggestions or formalized language.
Examples:
  • Shall I help you? suggestion
  • I shall never forget where I came from. promise
  • He shall become our next king. predestination
  • I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. inevitability

Scheduled events

The present simple tense is usually used to refer to future events that are scheduled (and outside of our control).
  • Hurry up! The train departs in 10 minutes.
  • I leave Frankfurt at 5 o'clock in the morning and arrive in New York
  • at midnight the next day.
  • She has an appointment with the headmaster after school today.
  • There's no need to hurry. The train doesn't leave for another 30 minutes.
  • When does the meeting begin?
  •  
  • EXERCISE ONE
  • EXERCISE TWO 
  • EXERCISE THREE  

lunes, 16 de noviembre de 2015

PREPOSITIONS





PREPOSITIONS BY www.ego4u.com

Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs).
Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult, as a 1:1 translation is usually not possible. One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation.
There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips).
The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English:

Prepositions – Time

English Usage Example
  • on
  • days of the week
  • on Monday
  • in
  • months / seasons
  • time of day
  • year
  • after a certain period of time (when?)
  • in August / in winter
  • in the morning
  • in 2006
  • in an hour
  • at
  • for night
  • for weekend
  • a certain point of time (when?)
  • at night
  • at the weekend
  • at half past nine
  • since
  • from a certain point of time (past till now)
  • since 1980
  • for
  • over a certain period of time (past till now)
  • for 2 years
  • ago
  • a certain time in the past
  • 2 years ago
  • before
  • earlier than a certain point of time
  • before 2004
  • to
  • telling the time
  • ten to six (5:50)
  • past
  • telling the time
  • ten past six (6:10)
  • to / till / until
  • marking the beginning and end of a period of time
  • from Monday to/till Friday
  • till / until
  • in the sense of how long something is going to last
  • He is on holiday until Friday.
  • by
  • in the sense of at the latest
  • up to a certain time
  • I will be back by 6 o’clock.
  • By 11 o'clock, I had read five pages.

Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction)

English Usage Example
  • in
  • room, building, street, town, country
  • book, paper etc.
  • car, taxi
  • picture, world
  • in the kitchen, in London
  • in the book
  • in the car, in a taxi
  • in the picture, in the world
  • at
  • meaning next to, by an object
  • for table
  • for events
  • place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)
  • at the door, at the station
  • at the table
  • at a concert, at the party
  • at the cinema, at school, at work
  • on
  • attached
  • for a place with a river
  • being on a surface
  • for a certain side (left, right)
  • for a floor in a house
  • for public transport
  • for television, radio
  • the picture on the wall
  • London lies on the Thames.
  • on the table
  • on the left
  • on the first floor
  • on the bus, on a plane
  • on TV, on the radio
  • by, next to, beside
  • left or right of somebody or something
  • Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.
  • under
  • on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else
  • the bag is under the table
  • below
  • lower than something else but above ground
  • the fish are below the surface
  • over
  • covered by something else
  • meaning more than
  • getting to the other side (also across)
  • overcoming an obstacle
  • put a jacket over your shirt
  • over 16 years of age
  • walk over the bridge
  • climb over the wall
  • above
  • higher than something else, but not directly over it
  • a path above the lake
  • across
  • getting to the other side (also over)
  • getting to the other side
  • walk across the bridge
  • swim across the lake
  • through
  • something with limits on top, bottom and the sides
  • drive through the tunnel
  • to
  • movement to person or building
  • movement to a place or country
  • for bed
  • go to the cinema
  • go to London / Ireland
  • go to bed
  • into
  • enter a room / a building
  • go into the kitchen / the house
  • towards
  • movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)
  • go 5 steps towards the house
  • onto
  • movement to the top of something
  • jump onto the table
  • from
  • in the sense of where from
  • a flower from the garden

Other important Prepositions

English Usage Example
  • from
  • who gave it
  • a present from Jane
  • of
  • who/what does it belong to
  • what does it show
  • a page of the book
  • the picture of a palace
  • by
  • who made it
  • a book by Mark Twain
  • on
  • walking or riding on horseback
  • entering a public transport vehicle
  • on foot, on horseback
  • get on the bus
  • in
  • entering a car  / Taxi
  • get in the car
  • off
  • leaving a public transport vehicle
  • get off the train
  • out of
  • leaving a car  / Taxi
  • get out of the taxi
  • by
  • rise or fall of something
  • travelling (other than walking or horseriding)
  • prices have risen by 10 percent
  • by car, by bus
  • at
  • for age
  • she learned Russian at 45
  • about
  • for topics, meaning what about
  • we were talking about you

Exercises on Prepositions

miércoles, 4 de noviembre de 2015

PAST SIMPLE, PAST CONTINUOUS & USED TO




USED TO.from www.englishpage.com

FORM

[used to + VERB]
Example:
  • I used to go to the beach every day.
It is better not to use "used to" in questions or negative forms; however, this is sometimes done in informal spoken English. It is better to ask questions and create negative sentences using Simple Past.

USE 1 Habit in the Past


"Used to" expresses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the past. It indicates that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now.
Examples:
  • Jerry used to study English.
  • Sam and Mary used to go to Mexico in the summer.
  • I used to start work at 9 o'clock.
  • Christine used to eat meat, but now she is a vegetarian.

USE 2 Past Facts and Generalizations


"Used to" can also be used to talk about past facts or generalizations which are no longer true.
Examples:
  • I used to live in Paris.
  • Sarah used to be fat, but now she is thin.
  • George used to be the best student in class, but now Lena is the best.
  • Oranges used to cost very little in Florida, but now they are quite expensive.

"Used to" vs. Simple Past

Both Simple Past and "Used to" can be used to describe past habits, past facts and past generalizations; however, "used to" is preferred when emphasizing these forms of past repetition in positive sentences. On the other hand, when asking questions or making negative sentences, Simple Past is preferred.
Examples:
  • You used to play the piano.
  • Did you play the piano when you were young?
  • You did not play the piano when you were young.
  •  
  • EXERCISE ONE
  • EXERCISE TWO