jueves, 26 de marzo de 2015

REPORTING VERBS





Reporting verbs with that clauses:

Some verbs introduce a report, an idea or a summary. These verbs have the pattern:
N + V + (that) + clause
When we want to say what someone says or thinks we can use a clause with that;
He said that I had to see a doctor.
I thought that he was being silly.
We can leave out the word that:
He said I had to see a doctor.
I thought he was being silly.
With some verbs we can mention the hearer as the object of the verb:
She reminded him that it was time to go.
He told me he was a friend of yours.
These verbs have the pattern;
N + V + N + (that) + clause.

Reporting verbs with wh- and if clauses

Some verbs introduce summaries, reports, questions or problems:
She explained what we had to do.
He asked if I was ready
I didn’t know what to do.
These verbs have the pattern:
N + V + wh- + clause:
She wondered where she was.
or
N + V + if + clause:
Ken asked if we wanted to go.
With some verbs we can mention the hearer as the object of the verb:
She asked me if I was ready.
He told me what I had to do.
These verbs have the pattern:
N + V + N + wh- + clause:
I told them what he was doing.
or
N + V + N + if + clause:
Ken asked us if we wanted to go.

martes, 24 de marzo de 2015

THIRD CONDITIONAL










Third Conditional: no possibility

EXERCISE ONE

EXERCISE TWO 

EXERCISE THREE 

The first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. With the third conditional we talk about the past. We talk about a condition in the past that did not happen. That is why there is no possibility for this condition. The third conditional is also like a dream, but with no possibility of the dream coming true.
Last week you bought a lottery ticket. But you did not win. :-(

condition result

Past Perfect WOULD HAVE + Past Participle
If I had won the lottery I would have bought a car.
Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. You did not win the lottery. So the condition was not true, and that particular condition can never be true because it is finished. We use the past perfect tense to talk about the impossible past condition. We use WOULD HAVE + past participle to talk about the impossible past result. The important thing about the third conditional is that both the condition and result are impossible now.
Sometimes, we use should have, could have, might have instead of would have, for example: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won.
Look at some more examples in the tables below:
IF condition result

past perfect WOULD HAVE + past participle
If I had seen Mary I would have told her.
If Tara had been free yesterday I would have invited her.
If they had not passed their exam their teacher would have been sad.
If it had rained yesterday would you have stayed at home?
If it had rained yesterday what would you have done?
 
result IF condition
WOULD HAVE + past participle
past perfect
I would have told Mary if I had seen her.
I would have invited Tara if she had been free yesterday.
Their teacher would have been sad if they had not passed their exam.
Would you have stayed at home if it had rained yesterday?
What would you have done if it had rained yesterday?