jueves, 26 de febrero de 2015

SECOND CONDITIONAL. UNREAL SENTENCES.




Second conditional

copyright: www.englishgrammarsecrets.com


The Second Conditional is used to talk about 'impossible' situations.

  • If we were in London today, we would be able to go to the concert in Hyde Park.
  • If I had millions dollars, I'd give a lot to charity.
  • If there were no hungry people in this world, it would be a much better place.
  • If everyone had clean water to drink, there would be a lot less disease.

Note that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'. (Some people think that 'were' is the only 'correct' form but other people think 'was' is equally 'correct' .)

  • If she were happy in her job, she wouldn't be looking for another one.
  • If I lived in Japan, I'd have sushi every day.
  • If they were to enter our market, we'd have big problems.

Note the form 'If I were you' which is often used to give advice.

  • If I were you, I'd look for a new place to live.
  • If I were you, I'd go back to school and get more qualifications.

The Second Conditional is also used to talk about 'unlikely' situations.

  • If I went to China, I'd visit the Great Wall.
  • If I was the President, I'd reduce taxes.
  • If you were in my position, you'd understand.

Note that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker's attitude rather than of facts. Compare these examples. Otto thinks these things are possible, Peter doesn't.

  • Otto – If I win the lottery, I'll buy a big house.
  • Peter – If I won the lottery, I'd buy a big house.
  • Otto – If I get promoted, I'll throw a big party.
  • Peter – If I got promoted, I'd throw a big party.
  • Otto – If my team win the Cup, I'll buy champagne for everybody.
  • Peter – If my team won the Cup, I'd buy champagne for everybody.

Note that the 'If clause' can contain the past simple or the past continuous.

  • If I was still working in Brighton, I would commute by train.
  • If she were coming, she would be here by now.
  • If they were thinking of selling, I would want to buy.

Note that the main clause can contain 'would' 'could' or 'might.

  • If I had the chance to do it again, I would do it differently.
  • If we met up for lunch, we could go to that new restaurant.
  • If I spoke to him directly, I might be able to persuade him.

Also note that sometimes the 'if clause' is implied rather than spoken.

  • What would I do without you? ("if you weren't here")
  • Where would I get one at this time of night? ("if I wanted one")
  • He wouldn't agree. ("if I asked him")





martes, 10 de febrero de 2015

FIRST, ZERO CONDITIONALS AND FUTURE TIME CLAUSES.






Verbs in time clauses and conditionals follow the same patterns as in other clauses except:
  • In clauses with time words like when, after, until we often use the present tense forms to talk about the future:
I’ll come home when I finish work.
You must wait here until your father comes.
They are coming after they have had dinner.
  •  in conditional clauses with if or unless we often use the present tense forms to talk about the future:
We won’t be able to go out if it is raining.
If Barcelona win tomorrow they will be champions.
I will come tomorrow unless I have to look after the children.
  • We do not normally use will in clauses with if or with time words:
I’ll come home when I will finish work.
We won’t be able to go out if it will rain. rains.
It will be nice to see Peter when he will get home gets home.
You must wait here until your father will come comes.
  • but we can use will if it means a promise or offer:
I will be very happy if you will come to my party.
We should finish the job early if George will help us.


"if" clauses and hypotheses

Some clauses with if are like hypotheses so we use past tense forms to talk about the present and future.
We use the past tense forms to talk about the present in clauses with if :
  • for something that has not happened or is not happening:
He could get a new job if he really tried   =  He cannot get a job because he has not tried.
If Jack was playing they would probably win  = Jack is not playing so they will probably not win.
If I had his address I could write to him  = I do not have his address so I cannot write to him.
 We use the past tense forms to talk about the future in clauses with if:
  • for something that we believe or know will not happen:

We would go by train if it wasn’t so expensive  = We won’t go by train because it is too expensive.
 I would look after the children for you at the weekend if I was at home  = I can’t look after the children because I will not be at home.

  •  to make suggestions about what might happen:
If he came tomorrow we could borrow his car.
If we invited John, Mary would bring Angela.
When we are talking about something which did not happen in the past we use the past perfect in the if clause and a modal verb in the main clause:

If you had seen him you could have spoken to him  = You did not see him so you could not speak to him
You could have stayed with us if you had come to London  = You couldn’t stay with us because you didn’t come to London.
If we hadn’t spent all our money we could take a holiday.  = We have spent all our money so we can’t take a holiday
If I had got the job we would be living in Paris  = I did not get the job so we are not living in Paris.

 If the main clause is about the past we use a modal with have:

If you had seen him you could have spoken to him.  = You did not see him so you could not speak to him.
You could have stayed with us if you had come to London.  = You couldn’t stay with us because you didn’t come to London.
If you had invited me I might have come.  = You didn’t invite me so I didn’t come.

If the main clause is about the present we use a present tense form or a modal without have:

If I had got the job we would be living in Paris now.  = I did not get the job so we are not living in Paris now.
If you had done your homework you would know the answer.  = You did not do your homework so you do not know the answer.

- See more at: http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/pt-br/english-grammar/verbs/verbs-time-clauses-and-if-clauses#sthash.cGKoVB3R.dpuf
Verbs in time clauses and conditionals follow the same patterns as in other clauses except:
  • In clauses with time words like when, after, until we often use the present tense forms to talk about the future:
I’ll come home when I finish work.
You must wait here until your father comes.
They are coming after they have had dinner.
  •  in conditional clauses with if or unless we often use the present tense forms to talk about the future:
We won’t be able to go out if it is raining.
If Barcelona win tomorrow they will be champions.
I will come tomorrow unless I have to look after the children.
  • We do not normally use will in clauses with if or with time words:
I’ll come home when I will finish work.
We won’t be able to go out if it will rain. rains.
It will be nice to see Peter when he will get home gets home.
You must wait here until your father will come comes.
  • but we can use will if it means a promise or offer:
I will be very happy if you will come to my party.
We should finish the job early if George will help us.


"if" clauses and hypotheses

Some clauses with if are like hypotheses so we use past tense forms to talk about the present and future.
We use the past tense forms to talk about the present in clauses with if :
  • for something that has not happened or is not happening:
He could get a new job if he really tried   =  He cannot get a job because he has not tried.
If Jack was playing they would probably win  = Jack is not playing so they will probably not win.
If I had his address I could write to him  = I do not have his address so I cannot write to him.
 We use the past tense forms to talk about the future in clauses with if:
  • for something that we believe or know will not happen:

We would go by train if it wasn’t so expensive  = We won’t go by train because it is too expensive.
 I would look after the children for you at the weekend if I was at home  = I can’t look after the children because I will not be at home.

  •  to make suggestions about what might happen:
If he came tomorrow we could borrow his car.
If we invited John, Mary would bring Angela.
When we are talking about something which did not happen in the past we use the past perfect in the if clause and a modal verb in the main clause:

If you had seen him you could have spoken to him  = You did not see him so you could not speak to him
You could have stayed with us if you had come to London  = You couldn’t stay with us because you didn’t come to London.
If we hadn’t spent all our money we could take a holiday.  = We have spent all our money so we can’t take a holiday
If I had got the job we would be living in Paris  = I did not get the job so we are not living in Paris.

 If the main clause is about the past we use a modal with have:

If you had seen him you could have spoken to him.  = You did not see him so you could not speak to him.
You could have stayed with us if you had come to London.  = You couldn’t stay with us because you didn’t come to London.
If you had invited me I might have come.  = You didn’t invite me so I didn’t come.

If the main clause is about the present we use a present tense form or a modal without have:

If I had got the job we would be living in Paris now.  = I did not get the job so we are not living in Paris now.
If you had done your homework you would know the answer.  = You did not do your homework so you do not know the answer.

- See more at: http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/pt-br/english-grammar/verbs/verbs-time-clauses-and-if-clauses#sthash.cGKoVB3R.dpuf

martes, 3 de febrero de 2015

FUTURE PERFECT & FUTURE CONTINUOUS







Future continuous & Future perfect. By  www.britishcouncil.org

 
The future continuous (will be + ‘ing’ form) and the future perfect (will have + past participle) tenses are used to talk about events in the future.

Future continuous

  • Don’t ring at 8 o’clock. I’ll be watching Who Wants to be a Millionaire.
  • This time tomorrow we’ll be sitting on the beach. I can’t wait!
We use the future continuous to talk about something that will be in progress at or around a time in the future.
  • Don’t phone grandma now, she’ll be having dinner.
  • The kids are very quiet. They’ll be doing something wrong, I know it!
These sentences are not about the future but we can use the future continuous to talk about what we assume is happening at the moment.

Future Perfect

  • Do you think you will have finished it by next Thursday?
  • In 5 years time I’ll have finished university and I’ll be able to earn some money at last.
We use the future perfect to say that something will be finished by a particular time in the future.

We often use the future perfect with ‘by’ or ‘in

  • I think astronauts will have landed on Mars by the year 2020.
  • I’ll have finished in an hour and then you can use the computer.
By’ means ‘not later than a particular time’ and ‘in’ means 'within a period of time’. We don’t know exactly when something will finish.
  • I promise I’ll have done all the work by next Saturday.
We don’t know exactly when he will finish the work – maybe Thursday, maybe Friday – but definitely before Saturday.


EXERCISE ONE
EXERCISE TWO
EXERCISE THREE