martes, 30 de abril de 2013

Defining Relative Clauses VS. Non-defining relative clauses.



Defining Relative Clauses VS. Non-defining relative clauses
 

>Non-defining Relative Clauses

They provide interesting additional information which is not essential to understanding the meaning of the sentence.
Example: Mrs. Jackson, who is very intelligent, lives on the corner.
"Mrs Johnson lives on the corner" provides a good piece of information. We also know that she is very intelligent, thanks to the relative clause (another interesting piece of information).
NB: YOU MUST USE COMMAS!

>Defining Relative Clauses

- their information is crucial in understanding the meaning of the sentence.
- if you remove them, the sentence has a different meaning or no meaning at all.
Examples:
The woman who lives in apartment No. 34 has been arrested.
What woman? The woman who lives in apartment n°34, not another woman.
A defining relative clause clearly defines who or what we are talking about. Without this information, it would be difficult to know who or what is meant.
NB: NO COMMAS!


Defining Relative Clauses
 
Person
Object
Subject who, that
which, that
Object Ø, that (also: who, whom) Ø, that (also: which)
Possessive whose whose, of which

Examples:
>Subject:
Example: Children who (that) play with fire are in great danger of harm.
The man who bought all the books by Hemingway has died.
Which is better? which/who OR that?
> who and which: written English
> that: oral English

>Object:
Example: That's the boy (Ø , that, who, whom) I invited to the party.
There's the house (Ø, that, which) I'd like to buy.
>Possessive:
Example: He's the man whose car was stolen last week.
They were sure to visit the town whose location (OR the location of which) was little known



jueves, 25 de abril de 2013

EXÁMENES FINALES.


FECHAS DE LOS EXÁMENES FINALES DE MAYO.

GRUPO NI1A (DE 9:30 A 11:30 DE LA MAÑANA):

- EXÁMENES ORALES: 16 DE MAYO
- EXÁMENES ESCRITOS: 21 Y 23 DE MAYO.

ENTREGA DE NOTAS: 28 DE MAYO.

GRUPO NI1B ( DE 16:00 A 18:00 DE LA TARDE):

-EXÁMENES ORALES: 15 Y 27 DE MAYO.
- EXÁMENES ESCRITOS: 20 Y 22 DE MAYO.

 ENTREGA DE NOTAS: 29 DE MAYO.

martes, 16 de abril de 2013

PASSIVE VOICE



Use of Passive

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.
Example: My bike was stolen.
In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.
Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:
Example: A mistake was made.
In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).

Form of Passive

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)
Example: A letter was written.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Examples of Passive Level 2

Tense Subject Verb Object
Simple Present Active: Ritawritesa letter.
Passive: A letteris writtenby Rita.
Simple Past Active: Ritawrotea letter.
Passive: A letterwas writtenby Rita.
Present Perfect Active: Ritahas writtena letter.
Passive: A letterhas been writtenby Rita.
Future I Active: Ritawill writea letter.
Passive: A letterwill be writtenby Rita.
Hilfsverben Active: Ritacan writea letter.
Passive: A lettercan be writtenby Rita.

Examples of Passive Level 4

Tense Subject Verb Object
Present Progressive Active: Ritais writinga letter.
Passive: A letteris being writtenby Rita.
Past Progressive Active: Ritawas writinga letter.
Passive: A letterwas being writtenby Rita.
Past Perfect Active: Ritahad writtena letter.
Passive: A letterhad been writtenby Rita.
Future II Active: Ritawill have writtena letter.
Passive: A letterwill have been writtenby Rita.
Conditional I Active: Ritawould writea letter.
Passive: A letterwould be writtenby Rita.
Conditional II Active: Ritawould have writtena letter.
Passive: A letterwould have been writtenby Rita.

Passive Sentences with Two Objects Level 3

Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.
  Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2
Active: Ritawrotea letterto me.
Passive: A letterwas writtento meby Rita.
Passive: Iwas writtena letterby Rita.
. As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. Thats why it is usually dropped.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.
Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.
Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.
Example: he says – it is said
Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).
Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.
Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.
Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.
The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).
Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.
Copyright: English Grammar for you on-line.com

Exercises:

EXERCISE 1 

EXERCISE 2

EXERCISE 3 

viernes, 12 de abril de 2013

REPORTED SPEECH

 

 

Reported speech (1)

When we report someone’s words we can do it in two ways. We can use direct speech with quotation marks (“I work in a bank”), or we can use reported speech (He said he worked in a bank.)
In reported speech the tenses, word-order and pronouns may be different from those in the original sentence.

Present simple and present continuous tenses
  • Direct speech: “I travel a lot in my job” Reported speech: He said that he travelled a lot in his job.
The present simple tense (I travel) usually changes to the past simple (he travelled) in reported speech.
  • Direct speech: “Be quiet. The baby’s sleeping.” Reported speech: She told me to be quiet because the baby was sleeping.
The present continuous usually changes to the past continuous.
NB:
  • “I work in Italy” Reported speech: He told me that he works in Italy.
It isn’t always necessary to change the tense. If something is still true now – he still works in Italy – we can use the present simple in the reported sentence.
Past simple and past continuous tenses
  • Direct speech: “We lived in China for 5 years.” Reported speech: She told me they had lived in China for 5 years.
The past simple tense (we lived) usually changes to the past perfect (they had lived) in reported speech.
  • Direct speech: “I was walking down the road when I saw the accident.” Reported speech: He told me he’d been walking down the road when he’d seen the accident.
The past continuous usually changes to the past perfect continuous.
Perfect tenses
  • Direct speech: “They’ve always been very kind to me”. Reported speech: She said they’d always been very kind to her.
The present perfect tense (have always been) usually changes to the past perfect tense (had always been).
  • Direct speech: “They had already eaten when I arrived” Reported speech: He said they’d already eaten when he’d arrived.
The past perfect tense does not change in reported speech.
You can find more information about reported speech in another section.


 Reported speech (2)

Remember that in reported speech we usually change the tense of the direct statement. The present simple tense changes to the past simple, the past simple changes to the past perfect and so on.
Here are some other points to consider.

‘Can’ and ‘will’
  • Direct speech: “I can’t remember his name.” Reported speech: She said she couldn’t remember his name.
Can’ and ‘can’t’ in direct speech change to ‘could’ and ‘couldn’t’ in reported speech.
  • Direct speech: “I’ll be there for 3 weeks.” Reported speech: He told me he’d be there for 3 weeks.
Will’ and ‘won’t’ in direct speech change to ‘would’ and ‘wouldn’t’ in reported speech.
Other modal verbs
  • Direct speech: “You could be right.” Reported speech: I said that he could be right.
  • Direct speech: “You must call me.” Reported speech: She said that I must call her.
Other modal verbs don’t change in reported speech.
Reporting orders, requests and advice
  • Direct speech: “Sit down and shut up!” Reported speech: The teacher told me to sit down and shut up.
  • Direct speech: “Can you hold this for me please?” Reported speech: He asked me to hold it.
  • Direct speech: “You should do more exercise.” Reported speech: He advised me to do more exercise.
Orders, request and advice can be reported using an infinitive.
Reporting verbs
There are a number of verbs that we use to report statements. These can make your speech and writing more interesting than simply reporting every word of the direct speech.

  • Direct speech: “It wasn’t me who broke the window.” > He denied breaking the window.
  • Direct speech: “I’ll help you if you want” > She offered to help.
There are a number of verbs that can be used to report. They include: promise, claim, suggest, advise, refuse, argue, confirm and others.

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EXERCISE 1
EXERCISE 2
EXERCISE 3

martes, 9 de abril de 2013

PRUEBAS DE CERTIFICACIÓN.

HAZ CLICK EN LA IMÁGEN PARA VER EL BOC SOBRE LAS PRUEBAS DE CERTIFICACIÓN.

domingo, 7 de abril de 2013

VERB TENSES REVIEW

TO REVIEW THE DIFFERENT VERB TENSES CLICK ON THE PICTURE BELOW:



martes, 2 de abril de 2013

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES.






Here is a brief review of the differences between gerunds and infinitives.
Gerunds are formed with ING: walking, talking, thinking, listening
Infinitives are formed with TO: to walk, to talk, to think, to listen


Gerunds and infinitives can do several jobs:
Both gerunds and infinitives can be the subject of a sentence::

Writing in English is difficult.
To write in English is difficult.

Both gerunds and infinitives can be the object of a verb::

I like writing in English.
I like to write in English.

But...

Only gerunds can be the object of a preposition::

We are talking about writing in English.


It is often difficult to know when to use a gerund and when to use an infinitive. These guidelines may help you:
Gerunds are often used when actions are real, concrete or completed::

I stopped smoking.
(The smoking was real and happened until I stopped.)

Infinitives are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future::

I stopped to smoke.
(I was doing something else, and I stopped; the smoking had not happened yet.)
   
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