lunes, 29 de octubre de 2012

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE vs PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS





Form
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of irregular verbs
Example:
I / you / we / they have spoken
he / she / it has spoken
regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed
Example:
I / you / we / they have worked
he / she / it has worked
form of 'have' + been + verb + ing
 
Example:
I / you / we / they have been speaking
he / she / it has been speaking
Exceptions
Exceptions when adding 'ed' :
  • when the final letter is e, only add d
Example:
love - loved
  • after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled
Example:
admit - admitted
  • final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)
Example:
travel - travelled
  • after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel)
Example:
worry - worried
but: play - played
Exceptions when adding 'ing' :
  • silent e is dropped. (but: does not apply for -ee)
Example: come - coming
aber: agree - agreeing
  • after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled
Example: sit - sitting
  • after a vowel, the final consonant l is doubled in British English (but not in American English).
Example: travel - travelling
  • final ie becomes y.
Example: lie - lying

Use
Both tenses are used to express that an action began in the past and is still going on or has just finished. In many cases, both forms are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result. We use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action.
Result or duration?
Do you want to express what has happened so far or how long an action has been going on yet?
Present Perfect SimplE
Present Perfect Progressive
Result (what / how much / how often)
I have written 5 letters. / I have been to London twice.
Duration (how long)
I have been writing for an hour.
Certain verbs
The following verbs are usually only used in Present Perfect Simple (not in the progressive form).
  • state: be, have (for possession only)
Example: We have been on holiday for two weeks.
  • senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch
Example: He has touched the painting.
  • brain work: believe, know, think, understand
Example: I have known him for 3 years.
Emphasis on completion or duration?
Do you want to emphasise the completion of an action or its continuous course (how has somebody spent his time)?
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
Emphasis on completion
I have done my homework. (Meaning: My homework is completed now.)
Emphasis on duration
I have been doing my homework. (Meaning: That's how I have spent my time. It does not matter whether the homework is completed now.)
Result or side effect?
Do you want to express that a completed action led to a desired result or that the action had an unwanted side effect?
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
desired result
I have washed the car. (Result: The car is clean now.)
unwanted side effect
Why are you so wet? - I have been washing the car. (side effect: I became wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether the car is clean now.)
Time + negation: last time or beginning of an action?
In negative sentences: Do you want to express how much time has past since the last time the action took place or since the beginning of the action?
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
since the last time
I haven't played that game for years. (Meaning: It's years ago that I last played that game.)
since the beginning
I haven't been playing that game for an hour, only for 10 minutes. (Meaning: It's not even an hour ago that I started to play that game.)
Permanent or temporary?
If an action is still going on and we want to express that it is a permanent situation, we would usually use the Present Perfect Simple. For temporary situations, we would prefer the Present Perfect Progressive. This is not a rule, however, only a tendency.
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
permanent
James has lived in this town for 10 years. (Meaning: He is a permanent resident of this town.)
temporary
James has been living here for a year. (Meaning: This situation is only temporary. Maybe he is an exchange student and only here for one or two years.)
Signal words
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Progressive
  • how often
  • ... times
  • how long
  • since
  • for
Exercises on Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Progressive
 

martes, 23 de octubre de 2012

FRIENDS SCENE (ENGLISH SUBTITLES)


NUMBERS AND FIGURES.





NUMBERS IN ENGLISH

21 → 99

Numbers between 21 to 99 should be hyphenated
21
: twenty-one
48
: forty-eight
92
: ninety-two

100 → 999

hundred” is invariable when preceded by a numeral.
100
: one hundred
200
: two hundred

Two hundred people were there.”
But “Ø Hundreds of people were there.


“and” or no “and”?


100
: a hundred / one hundred / a hundred (With large numbers it is usually one hundred ... but in other contexts a hundred ... is more natural.
101
: one hundred and one (UK) / one hundred one (US)
110
: one hundred and ten (UK) / one hundred ten (US)
200
: two hundred
201
: two hundred and one (UK) / two hundred one (US)
210
: two hundred and ten (UK) / two hundred ten (US)


1,000 → 9,999

thousand” is invariable when preceded by a numeral.
1,000
: one thousand
2,000
: two thousand

Two thousand people were there.”
But “Ø Thousands of people were there.

“and” or no “and”?


1,000
: one thousand
1,001
: one thousand and one (UK) / one thousand one (US)
1,010
: one thousand and ten (UK) / one thousand two (US)
1,100
: one thousand one hundred
1,110
: one thousand one hundred and ten (UK) / one thousand one hundred ten (US)


10,000 → 99,999

Basically it’s always the same as above.


10,000
: ten thousand
10,001
: ten thousand and one (UK) / ten thousand one (US)
10,010
: ten thousand and ten (UK) / ten thousand one (US)
10,100
: ten thousand one hundred
10,110
: ten thousand one hundred and ten (UK) / ten thousand one hundred ten (US)

100,000 → 999,999

100,000
: one hundred thousand
100,001
: one hundred thousand and one (UK) / one hundred thousand one (US)
100,010
: one hundred thousand and ten (UK) / one hundred thousand ten (US)
100,100
: one hundred thousand one hundred
101,000
: one hundred and one thousand (UK) / one hundred one thousand (US)
110,000
: one hundred and ten thousand (UK) / one hundred ten thousand (US)

1,000,000 → 999,999,999

million” is invariable when preceded by a numeral.

1,000,000
: one million
2,000,000
: two million

“This project cost two million dollars.”
But “This project cost Ø millions of dollars.”


1,000,000
: one million
1,000,001
: one million and one (UK) / one billion one (US)
1,000,010
: one million and ten (UK) / one billion ten (US)
1,000,100
: one million one hundred
1,001,000
: one million one thousand
1,010,000
: one million ten thousand
1,100,000
: one million one hundred thousand
1,110,000
: one million one hundred and ten thousand (UK) / one million one hundred ten thousand (US)
1,111,000
: one million one hundred and eleven thousand (UK) / one million one hundred eleven thousand (US)
1,111,100
: one million one hundred and eleven thousand one hundred (UK) / one million one hundred eleven thousand one hundred (US)
1,111,110:
one million one hundred and eleven thousand one hundred and ten (UK) / one million one hundred eleven thousand one hundred ten (US)

1,000,000,000 and above

billion” is invariable when preceded by a numeral.

1,000,000,000
: one billion
2,000,000,000
: two billion

“This project cost two billion dollars.”
But “This project cost Ø billions of dollars.”


1,100,000,000
: one billion one hundred million
… (combine with what was said above)

Note:

Even in British English, “one billion” is now understood as one thousand million (1,000,000,000), not a million million (1,000,000,000,000).


Place of the commas and dots

The comma is used to separate thousands:

1,000 (one thousand)
45,000 (forty-five thousand)
100,000 (one hundred thousand)
1,000,000 (one million)
...

The dot is used to separate decimals

4.7 (four point seven)

→ 1,004.75


 

jueves, 18 de octubre de 2012

 

Simple Past – Present Perfect Simple

EXERCISE ONE
EXERCISE TWO 
EXERCISE THREE

Form:

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs
Example:
I spoke
irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of irregular verbs
Example:
I / you / we / they have spoken
he / she / it has spoken
regular verbs: infinitive + ed
Example:
I worked
regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed
Example:
I / you / we / they have worked
he / she / it has worked
Exceptions
Exceptions when adding 'ed':
  • when the final letter is e, only add d
    Example:
    love - loved
  • after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled
    Example:
    admit - admitted
  • final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)
    Example:
    travel - travelled
  • after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel)
    Example:
    worry - worried
    but: play - played


Use

In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words, you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important.
Note that the following explanations and exercises refer to British English only. In American English, you can normally use Simple Past instead of Present Perfect. We cannot accept this in our exercises, however, as this would lead to confusions amongst those who have to learn the differences.

Certain time in the past or just / already / yet?

Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action has just / already / not yet happened?
Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
certain time in the past
Example:
I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago.
just / already / not yet
Example:
I have just phoned Mary.

Certain event in the past or how often so far?

Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action has happened till now?
Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
certain event in the past
Example:
He went to Canada last summer.
whether / how often till now
Example:
Have you ever been to Canada? / I have been to Canada twice.

  Emphasis on action or result?

Do you just want to express what happened in the past? Or do you want to emphasise the result (a past action's consequence in the present)?
Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
Emphasis on action
Example:
I bought a new bike. (just telling what I did in the past.)
Emphasis on result
Example:
I have bought a new bike. (With this sentence I actually want to express that I have a new bike now.)

Signal Words

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
  • yesterday
  • ... ago
  • in 1990
  • the other day
  • last ...
  • just
  • already
  • up to now
  • until now / till now
  • ever
  • (not) yet
  • so far
  • lately / recently

martes, 16 de octubre de 2012

GREATEST MOVIE MOMENTS(3): "HOUSTON WE´VE GOT A PROBLEM", APOLLO XIII


PREPOSITIONS IN, ON, AT (TIME AND PLACE).

 

 

Prepositions: In, On, and At (with specific times and places):


The prepositions in, on, and at can be used to indicate time and place. Notice how they are used in the following situations:
Preposition
Time
Place
In
Year, Month, In 1999, In December
Country, State, City In Japan, In Utah, InTaipei
On
Day, Date On Saturday, On May 1
Street On Main Street, On 1st Ave.
At
Time At 8:00, At 7:30
Address At 815 East Main Street
In many languages, there is only one preposition for the above situations. In English there are three. Just remember that in usually indicates the "largest" time or place, and at usually indicates the "smallest" time or place.
Examples:
    A: Where's your office?
    B: In Taipei, Taiwan.
    A: Really? What part of Taipei?
    B: It's on Chung Shan North Road.
    A: I know that area. Where exactly is it?
    B: It's at 105 Chung Shan North Road, next to the bookstore.
    C: When is the wedding?
    D: It's in June.
    C: What day?
    D: It's on Saturday, the 25th.
    C: What time?
    D: It starts at 6:00.

Prepositions with articles and locations

When talking about locations, use at to indicate the general vicinity or area, and in to indicate inside the building, enclosed area, etc. For example: 

at the swimming pool (on site)
in the swimming pool (in the pool itself i.e. in the water)
at the post office/bank (general)
in the post office/bank (inside the building)
at the zoo (visitors, general area)
in the zoo (animals in their cages)
at school
in the classroom

Sample sentences:

I met my wife at the theater. (while watching a movie)
I spilled my drink in the theater (on the floor of the building)
She works at the library on Wednesdays.
She found a rare coin in the library (building).
Dr. Jones works at the hospital every day.
John was in the hospital for a week with a broken leg.
For school, prison, and church, the is used to indicate the building. No article indicates the general situation. Note the following: 

"practice"/situation
building
in school (studying, listening to teacher, etc.)
in the school (building)
in jail/prison (staying there as a criminal)
in the jail/prison (temporary)
in church (praying, listening to a sermon, etc.)
in the church (building)
Where's Dad?
in church (attending services)
in the church (fixing the windows)
at church at the church
in prison (He committed a crime.)
EXERCISE ONE
EXERCISE TWO
EXERCISE THREE


at the prison (visiting his friend)